Computing Generations: Fundamentals of Computers


Computing Generations: Fundamental Of Computers

Computing Generations: Fundamental Of Computers


Man has been making concerted efforts for finding different ways to perform routine calculations automatically. In the Olden Days, the abacus was put to use for simple addition and subtraction by the ancient Greeks and Romans.

In the following sections, a brief discussion of the technical aspects of the various computing generations is given.

Zeroth Generation

For centuries, mankind used simple tools like the abacus to do simple addition and subtraction. But the first-ever machine for addition and subtraction was built by French Scientist Blaise Pascal in 1642. In his honor, we have a programming language named PASCAL. 

He built the whole machine using gears which is started with the help of hand. Later machines were built to do addition, division, and other complex operation. All these machines were built only on mechanical components. These machines are called Zeroth Generation Computers.

First Generation Computers

With the invention of vacuum tubes, the next generation of computers was built using vacuum tubes. The vacuum tube generated more heat as well as covered more space which is equal to a room. 

The first-ever electronic computer was built in 1946. This was built using vacuum tube technology and was ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computers)

ENIAC and all successive computers developed using vacuum tubes are called First Generation Computers.

Second Generation Computers

Transistor was invented in 1948 which generated less heat compared to a vacuum tube. All the Computers which were built using transistors were called Second Generation Computers. The earliest computer that was developed using transistor technology was PDP-1, by a company called DEC. 

At the same time another company International Business Machine popularly known as IBM, also developed a computer using transistors which are called IBM 7090.

Third Generation Computers

The third generation computers used integrated circuits ic are small packages containing dozens of built-in transistors. Integrated Circuits, made it possible to build small as well as increase the speed of computers. One of the earlier models is IBM 360 and PDP-11.

Fourth Generation Computers

The fourth generation computers use VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). By using VLSI technology millions of transistors are on a single chip. 

Fifth Generation Computers

The period of 5th generation computers starts from 1980 till to date. In this generation, VLSI converted into ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration), which bring a revolution in the production of micro processor chips having ten million electronic types of machinery. All modern-day computers fall under this class.

 Some famous Computer kinds of the 5th generation are as under:-




Ultra Book

The Authority of Modern Computer to Mechanical Computer Machines

 Modern computers are superior to mechanical calculating machines due to the following reasons.

  • Due to the use of electronic circuits in place of mechanical gears and wheels, the problems of wear, backlark, and hysteresis are entirely terminated.
  • Since computer system operates at electronic speed i.e speed of light, the speed of modern computers is very fast than a mechanical calculating machine.
  • Operation is automatic in modern computers on contrary in mechanical it is a manual calculating machine.
  • Mechanical calculating devices can perform only limited arithmetic operations, whereas modern computers can perform logical operations and complex arithmetic operations by writing relevant programs.



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